Clinical Characteristics and Thoracic factors in patients with Idiopathic and Syndromic Scoliosis Associated with Pectus Excavatum

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Ryoji Tauchi1), Yoshitaka Suzuki2), Taichi Tsuji1), Tetsuya Ohara1), Toshiki Saito1), Ayato Nohara3), Kazuaki Morishita1), Ippei Yamauchi1), Noriaki Kawakami1)

1) Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Meijo Hospital, Aichi, Japan
2) Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Aichi, Japan
3) Department of Orthopedic Surgery, JCHO Tokyo Shinjuku Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan

Abstract:

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the clinical characteristics and thoracic factors such as sternal tilt angle and Haller index in patients with idiopathic or syndromic scoliosis associated with pectus excavatum.
Methods: We performed a retrospective review on a cohort of 70 patients (37 males and 33 females) diagnosed with idiopathic and syndromic scoliosis associated with pectus excavatum between 1985 and 2014. We investigated age, location and Cobb angle of the main curve, and thoracic factors including sternal deviation and tilting angle and Haller index using radiographs and computed tomography of the chest.
Results: Patients' mean age at the first visit to our hospital was 10.3 years (1-18 years old). There were 41 patients with idiopathic scoliosis and 29 with syndromic scoliosis. Main curve locations were thoracic in 52 patients, thoracolumbar in 10, and lumbar in 8. The mean Cobb angle of the main curve was 45.0 degrees (11-109 degrees). The sternum was displaced on the left side in 72% of patients, central in 23%, and right in 5%. Mean sternal tilt angle was 12.4 degrees (2.3-34 degrees), and mean Haller index score was 4.9 (2.9-9.2). There was no significant correlation between Cobb angle and sternal tilt angle/Haller index. However, a significant difference was found between sternal tilt angle and Haller index.
Conclusion: Most patients with both scoliosis and pectus excavatum have left side deviated sternum and a higher Haller index score; therefore this can negatively impact cardiac function. Prone positioning and the corrective force applied during scoliosis surgery as well as thoracic compression during cast or brace treatment may have a negative effect on cardiac function in these patients.

Released: January 27, 2018; doi: dx.doi.org/10.22603/ssrr.2017-0027